Amidst this continuing debate, Dr. Karpovich takes what is perhaps the most realistic approach. "The use of a substance or device which improves a man's physical performance without being injurious to his health," he says, "can hardly be called unethical. As for taking advantage of other contestants who do not use these aids, this should be regarded in the same light as the use of special diets, special exercises and so forth. All these means are available to everyone." But, he warns—and it is a significant but—"there are few, if any, pharmacological aids which can be used indiscriminately without incurring risk."