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"You sportswriters," he told them, "and, of course, I include sportscasters and leading figures in the world of sport—set the standards of sportsmanship in the American people; and sportsmanship means basic moral character. I don't need to tell you gentlemen what most men read first or at least most carefully in the daily press.... There can be but little doubt, especially if one adds fishing to the list, that competitive sports, either as participant or spectator, constitute the major recreational interest of Americans....
"I was very much impressed with the Code of Sportsmanship which is in some of your literature, a code presented not as a set of moral maxims, but as a part of the happy injunction to 'Play the Game.'...And yet, as good as it is, I would suggest that with the development of American sport there has come in an added dimension that needs to be brought somehow within the code.... We have all heard and said much about the dangers of commercialization in amateur sport, and they are real. Instead of the game, the money becomes the chief thing and one plays not for fun, friendship, and glory, but for the publicity and the signed offer. We have made rules against the amateur accepting money for his skill and strength and have tried to combat the evils which we know too well.
"I would suggest that the development of sports has gotten to the point where the preservation of the amateur spirit is going to have to be stated not solely in terms of the high school graduate and the lone tennis player. Lincoln said this nation cannot be half slave and half free. We cannot have amateur players and commercial management. The institutions which sponsor our athletics will have to be challenged to remain amateur also.
"Most of the ills of our amateur athletics, at least on the college level, can be traced to the fact that the colleges, the associations and the bowls are making money or endeavoring to make money out of the gate."
THE GHOST OF WES SANTEE
Though he has long since been banished to the outer darkness of professionalism, Wes Santee may yet be remembered as the perverse man who did the most in his generation to influence a renaissance of the amateur spirit in the U.S. Delegates to the Amateur Athletic Union's national convention at Los Angeles—reacting to the Santee case—last week voted a general overhaul of AAU rules governing expenses and, in so doing, took a more liberal and a more realistic view of the problems which Santee dramatized last year in such embarrassing fashion.
Under the new AAU laws the basic allowance for athletes traveling to meets away from home remains $15 a day; in areas where this is insufficient, however, athletes may draw an extra $5 and furthermore will be allowed, as they were not before, to draw expenses for the day preceding and the day following meets held less than 150 miles from home. At the same time two long-abused loopholes in the rules have been closed—an action, it seems obvious, that should have been taken years ago. Meet directors must now list the amounts of expense money paid athletes (heretofore such accounting was not mandatory), and athletes must file travel permits showing all meets in which they intend to compete on one trip. This simple device prevents an ancient and flagrant abuse of amateur rules, for heretofore a New York athlete competing, say, in three West Coast meets could quite possibly get three round-trip air or train tickets and cash in two of them.
Two months ago the Professional Golfers' Association set up a committee of self-appraisal for the study of "rules of conduct"—rules for the pros, that is. The committee, which includes such authorities as Bob Toski, Doug Ford and Tommy (Terrible-tempered) Bolt, is due to report next month. But meanwhile, it seems, PGA reflections on good and bad golf manners have already led to some tentative commandments—just as applicable to the weekend golfer as to the pro. Here they are—in the phrasing of J. Edwin Carter, PGA tournament director: