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1 Pass. Despite the fact that your hand is the equal of an opening bid it would not be safe for you to over-call with two hearts. If the trumps are massed against you a 500 or 700 set is not beyond expectancy, and the opposition may not even be able to score a game. Do not overcall at the two-level when you may lose more than two trump tricks.
2 Two hearts. Although this hand is worth only 12 points (9 in high cards and 3 for distribution) it is a reasonable overcall because there is a legitimate prospect for game if partner can support your suit. The quality of your heart suit offers you reasonable protection against disaster.
3 Two spades. Do not bid two diamonds—you might end up in the wrong contract. Partner's spade over-call is surely based on a fair five-card suit, and your three trumps headed by the king should be adequate support. With such support for partner's suit the raise of his suit is always to be preferred.
4 Double, intending to show the spades later. A mere overcall of one spade would be starkly inadequate, and might result in the loss of a heart game if partner had a smattering of strength and four fairish hearts.
5 Double. You have the ideal holding: excellent support in all unbid suits. It is well to visualize your hand as a dummy for partner, and in that case it will be worth 14 points in support of any suit partner bids.
6 Two spades, the strongest possible overcall. With this hand you should be willing to commit your partnership to an ultimate game contract. The immediate cue bid (an overcall in the opponent's suit) is unconditionally forcing to game and permits a more relaxed sequence of bids on future rounds, i.e., no subsequent jumps will be required. Should your partner show strength in the right places, a slam might even be available.
7 One spade. Don't pass from fright. Partner's double is a demand for you to bid and the only excuse for passing is the belief that you can defeat the opponents' bid. For this you need four defensive tricks, three of which must be in the trump suit. Do not be afraid that your response will excite partner; he should not undertake any contract which can't be fulfilled largely by his own cards.
8 Two spades. Your hand has the value of 11 points, and so you should be an outstanding favorite to make game. You need not fear to jump in a four-card suit. Partner's double of one heart implies good support for the other major.
9 Pass. Don't forget that you doubled on minimum values and partner has made a forced response. Assuming that partner is alert to his obligations, you may pass with the assurance that if he has any positive values he will not submit meekly to the opposition but will carry on the fight. When you have forced your partner to bid, you should not raise to the level of two without at least 16 points.
10 Three hearts. A raise to game would not be justified for you have forced partner to bid and he may have little or nothing. A raise to the three-level will announce to partner that you have a very good hand (at least 19 points) in support of hearts, and should induce him to go on to game with ever so little.