SI Vault
Kent Black
November 26, 1990
Artist James Houston designs wildlife sculpture for the Steuben glassworks
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November 26, 1990

Creator Of A Glass Menagerie

Artist James Houston designs wildlife sculpture for the Steuben glassworks

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In the meantime, Houston's own reputation as an artist was growing. After a visit by Steuben's president, Arthur Houghton Jr., in the summer of 1959, Houston for the first time gave some thought to glass as an artistic medium. "Houghton was very impressed with our local artists," recalls Houston, "so I tried to convince him to fund a glass studio up there and train the Eskimos. Instead, he said, 'I've got a better idea. Why don't you come to Corning and design for Steuben?' It took a couple of years, but I finally made the move."

Houston was enthralled on his first visit to the glass factory. "At that time they were running three shifts around the clock," he says, leading the way downstairs in the factory to where the glass is mixed. "Arthur Houghton suggested I work the night shift. Men would bring in venison and we would roast it in the glory holes. I kept thinking, The Eskimos would love this."

The basement below the furnaces is a jumble of pipes and cauldrons, just the place where one would expect Steuben to jealously guard its secret formula of sand, ash, lead and glass cullet—ingredients that are combined and heated at approximately 2,500� F. Here the glass is mixed as delicately as a souffl�. Most glass in which the tiniest bubble or imperfection is seen is thrown back into the cullet heap to be remixed. Other glass, such as that in Houston's salmon bowl, requires the deliberate creation of imperfections to simulate bubbles in the water, by a process that is a company secret.

On this day in April, Houston moves to a small platform where a worker receives orders for glass from the gatherers, whose job it is to pick up the glass for their gaffers. While he stands there, Phillips's order for Houston's second pheasant attempt of the day comes down: three minutes, 45 seconds. Gaffers do not measure glass in terms of volume or size, but in how long it takes for the viscous material to flow. At the precise second, the measurer cuts off the flow of glass, snips the excess with a pair of heavy scissors and then sends the glass up a tube to the main floor, where it will be picked up by the waiting gatherer.

Upstairs, the gatherer completes a rough shaping of the material and hands it to the gaffer's first assistant, the servitor. Phillips's servitor reheats the glass in the glory hole and forms the general working shape. At this point, it doesn't even resemble a dodo. Yet when Phillips (a 45-year Steuben veteran who is nearing retirement) takes the handoff, he will know, according to Houston, "whether he has even a few seconds too little or too much glass."

Houston catches sight of Phillips starting on the next pheasant and hurries over to watch the second attempt. By the time the servitor hands off the glass to Phillips, it has been shaped into a molten ball with the help of a rounded wooden block. Phillips's tools—wooden bowls, paddles and metal calipers—are identical to those used by glassblowers as far back as the 17th century. Constantly reheating and spinning the glass in the oven, he uses the paddle to give a rough shape to the body. He then uses a pair of rough tongs to pull out the neck and head of the bird, again smoothing it out with a paddle as lightly as one would pet a rabbit. As a pipe is stuck into the bird's tail feathers, Phillips and his servitor complete the delicate task of transferring the pheasant onto another pipe connected to its underside so Phillips can finish off the tail, wings and comb.

Houston is most concerned with the detailing of the comb, the determinant of the pheasant's masculinity. "It's a lot easier to make the female," he says. "No head feathers." When both men are satisfied they can fiddle no more, a servitor with heavy asbestos mitts takes hold of the bird. Phillips gives the pipe a sharp rap and the glass connection comes free. The underside will eventually be polished until the glass is clear and clean.

Amid critical clucks and furrowed eyebrows, the servitor takes the pheasant to the lehr, or moving, ovens. The glass is placed on a slow-moving conveyor belt. The entry end of the oven is extremely hot, while the exit end, 56 feet eight inches away, is at room temperature. The two days required for the pheasant to travel from one end to the other will ensure that the glass develops no cracks or internal fissures.

No one can say why, but this pheasant doesn't quite measure up to the first attempt. Perhaps the body is not full enough or the comb prominent enough, but most present agree it will end up in the cullet bin, the graveyard for imperfect crystal creatures. Though there is some disappointment at the wasted hour (two or three times as long as it takes for most Steuben production pieces), Houston's and his peers' eyes are alight in anticipation of the third attempt. They will make several more before the design is submitted for approval. When it is "passed," Steuben will set the sale price and decide how many the edition will comprise.

"Every time we try a new piece, I end up seeing or realizing something I hadn't known before," says the pheasant's creator. "A drawing like this is flat-footed compared to glass. Glass has its own life. Sometimes its qualities can show you things you've never seen or imagined, and at other times it'll completely ruin you. I'm lucky. The Eskimos really prepared me for this. They taught me never to worry and to have a lot of patience."

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