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- Faces in the CrowdJune 11, 2001
Howard basketball coach Sanya Tyler sues the university for sex discrimination under Title IX in a D.C. superior court, saying she was paid much less than her men's counterpart. She receives the first monetary award given by a jury in a Title IX case: $2.4 million (later reduced to $1.1 million).
APRIL 16, 1993:
In Cohen v. Brown, a federal court finds that Brown University does not meet any part of the Office for Civil Rights' three-prong test: The number of male and female athletes was not substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments, there was no history of expanding participation opportunities, and Brown was not effectively accommodating the interests of female athletes. The university is ordered to reinstate the women's gymnastics and volleyball programs.
SEPT. 1, 1994:
A U.S. Court of Appeals upholds a ruling for the University of Illinois, which had terminated its men's swimming program the year before. Members of that team had sued on the grounds that they were denied equal opportunity, but this case, along with several others around this time, set a precedent that men may not use Title IX to claim sex discrimination when their programs are cut for budgetary reasons.
OCT. 20, 1994:
Congress passes the Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act, which requires federally funded coed institutions to submit annual reports about their athletics programs to better monitor Title IX compliance.
JAN. 16, 1996:
In response to growing concern that schools are cutting men's programs to reach proportionality, the Office for Civil Rights issues guidelines elaborating on the three-prong test introduced in its 1979 memo. It confirms that institutions can choose which of the three conditions they plan to meet in order to provide nondiscriminatory participation opportunities for individuals of both sexes and clarifies how Title IX requires the OCR to count those opportunities.