Armstrong in fact had no more essential adviser than Ferrari. USADA spoke to 15 cyclists, six of them Armstrong teammates whom Ferrari also served, and each confirmed that the doctor supervised Armstrong's doping program. Financial records show that Armstrong paid Ferrari more than $1 million in consulting fees between 1999 and 2006, during which he won his Tour titles. The USADA report includes so many instances of Armstrong's meetings with Ferrari that it takes nearly a page of footnotes to list all of the relevant citations from witnesses' affidavits.
As a result of today's developments, the USPS team and I have suspended our professional affiliation with Dr. Ferrari.
— Armstrong on Oct. 1, 2004, after Ferrari's conviction in Italy
Ferrari was found guilty of "sporting fraud" and "illegally acting as a pharmacy." While the ruling was later overturned on a statute-of-limitations technicality, Ferrari remains banned from working with Italian cyclists. In 2005, Armstrong testified in a U.S. court case that he had had no professional contact with Ferrari since his public break. But USADA reports that Armstrong paid Ferrari at least $210,000 after claiming to have severed ties and that the relationship continued at least until two years ago, into Armstrong's triathlon preparations.
You made a mistake when you testified against Ferrari and ... when you sued me.... I can destroy you.
—Armstrong to Italian rider Filippo Simeoni at the '04 Tour, according to Simeoni's affidavit
In 2000, Simeoni had testified in an Italian criminal proceeding that Ferrari had supervised his regimen of EPO and testosterone. In a later interview with Le Monde, Armstrong had called Simeoni "an absolute liar." That day at the Tour in 2004, Armstrong, wearing the yellow jersey, chased down Simeoni's breakaway during the 18th stage and reeled him back to the pack, whereupon other riders abused and spat at him. "[Armstrong] was in charge of cycling, and nothing was done," Simeoni told an Italian radio interviewer in August, after USADA first announced its findings. "I paid for things that weren't just. I only told the truth."
People are smart. They will say: "Has Lance Armstrong ever tested positive? No."
—Armstrong to the AP, July 23, 2001
In fact, long before Armstrong became a global brand, his testosterone levels had tested abnormally high. As SI reported last year, a June 4, 1999, letter from UCLA's Olympic Analytical Laboratory to USA Cycling documents eight of Armstrong's testosterone tests from 1991 to '98, with a gap in '97 when he was still recovering from cancer. At that time a ratio of testosterone to the hormone epitestosterone (the "T/E ratio") exceeding 6 to 1 constituted evidence of doping; a normal ratio is 1 to 1. In 2005 the threshold was lowered to 4 to 1. Six of the eight test results reported in the UCLA Olympic lab's letter are higher than 4 to 1, and three are higher than 6 to 1. The highest value is 9 to 1, from a sample taken on June 23, 1993, barely two weeks before Armstrong won his first-ever stage in the Tour. In the letter, lab director Don Catlin says two of the tests that exceeded 6 to 1 couldn't be confirmed. There is no reference to any attempted confirmation of the third. A confirmation failure, Catlin has said, occurred only "once in a blue moon."